High-Yield Important FCPS Part 1 Facts & Pearls by Dr. Salahuddin Kamal (Must Have)

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This blog post contains High-yield important FCPS Part 1 facts and pearls which you can use for boosting-up your FCPS Part 1 exam preparation. The FCPS Part 1 exam is completely doable provided that one dedicates sufficient time and lay a proper groundwork for the preparation. The key to cracking FCPS Part 1 exam is to learn from people who have actually achieved success.

The College of Physicians & Surgeons of Pakistan (CPSP) logo.

These high-yield important FCPS Part 1 facts & pearls have been shared with us by Dr. Salahuddin Kamal who is a graduate of Hamdard University, School of Medicine. He has maintained outstanding academic records in his university life. He completed his house job in 2014 and passed FCPS Part 1 exam in 2015. Dr. Salahuddin is actively working for the doctor community, especially for FCPS Part 1 students.







He is the author of two books: SK Pearls of FCPS Part 1 & SK pearls of Gynae /Obs.

READ ALSO: FCPS Part 1 Syllabus & Guidelines by CPSP




High-Yield Important FCPS Part 1 Facts & Pearls

Below are high-yield important FCPS Part 1 facts and pearls you can use for advancing your preparation. 🙂




HAPPY LEARNING! 🙂

DURING EXERCISE:

  • Inadequate blood supply: Kidneys
  • Inadequate Oxygen delivery: Skeletal muscles
  • Minimum change in blood flow: Brain
  • Estrogen in Reproductive years (when a woman is like a doll): ESTRADIOL — Doll (di – girl n boy)
  • Estrogen in pregnancy: ESTRIOL — (tri – mom, dad, child)
  • Estrogen in menopause: ESTRIONE — (one – woman become single again)

Estrogen containing Oral Contraceptive Pills:

  • Increase risk of Thromboembolism > Breast CA
  • High Estrogen containing OCPs: Inc risk of endometrial CA
  • Low Estrogen containing OCPs: Inc risk of Hepatic Adenoma

Glomerular Filtration Rate

Best way to measure GFF = Inulin Clearance

  • Best way to estimate GFR = creatinine clearance
  • Best way to measure renal plasma/blood flow = Para-Aminohippuric Acid (PAH)
  • Clinically by Creatinine
  • Highest renal clearance = Para-Aminohippuric Acid (PAH)

In Electrocardiogram (ECG)

  • P Wave → Atrial Depolarization
  • Q → Septal Depolarization
  • R → Early Ventricular depolarization (potential traveling to apex of vents)
  • S → Late Ventricular depolarization (Potential traveling to base of vents)
  • T → Ventricular repolarization
  • U → Delayed repolarization of Purkinje system or papillary muscles

Premalignant change in mouth: Chronic ulcer

  • Premalignant Condition: Lichen planus (It is a skin rash that is triggered by the immune system.)
  • Premalignant Lesion (Most common): Leukoplakia
  • Premalignant Lesion (Most lethal): Erythroplakia
  • Bettlenut chewing: Submucosal fibrosis


GEOMED Mnemonic

  • Giant cell — Epiphysis
  • Osteosarcoma — Metaphysis
  • Ewing sarcoma — Diaphysis
  • Osteoblastoma — Vertebral bodies

Epiphyseal Lesions:

  • Giant cell tumor
    ☆ Chondroblastoma
    ☆ Chondrosarcoma
    can occur Rarely in…
    ☆ Osteosarcoma
    ☆ Osteoblastoma

TYPHOID FEVER INVESTIGATIONS:
MNEMONIC BASU to memorize i.e
B=Blood, A=Antibody, S=Stool, U=Urine

  • 1st week = blood culture
  • 2nd week = antibody/widal
  • 3rd week = stool
  • 4th week = urine culture

 

  • Barbodies diagnostic for: Turner Syndrome
  • Barbodies absent in: Turner Syndrome
  • Scanty Barbodies present in: Turner (because of mosaic pattern)
  • Presence of single barbodies diagnostic for: Klinefelter’s Syndrome
  • Total x chromosome minus one is the number of bar bodies for example in xxx there are 2 bar bodies
  • Benign tumor: Warthin’s Tumor (Warthin’s tumor, also known as the papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum, it is a benign cystic tumor of the salivary glands)
    Hamartoma – tumor LIKE benign overgrowth…(Source: BRS Review)

LYSOSOMES:
• Arise from Golgi apparatus
• Contain hydrolases
• Cause degradation of unfolded proteins
• Uterus and breast regress after pregnancy by lysosomes
• On H & E stain: hollow structure around nuclei

PEROXISOMES
• Originate from Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
• Contain OXIDASE, H2O2 AND CATALASE
• Single membrane

CENTRIOLE

• Microtubules

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
• Protein synthesis
• Continuous with nuclear membrane
• Nissle bodies
• Basophilia of cell
• Absent in axon hillock

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
• Detoxification of drugs
• Giver peroxisomes
• Contain Calcium

MITOCHONDRIA
• DNA
• Energy house

GOLGI COMPLEX
• Binds carbohydrate with protein, enclose them in vesicles and release
• Secretary vesicles
• Lysosomes arise here

NUCLEOLUS
• No limiting membrane
• Site of RNA synthesis and assembly

DOUBLE MEMBRANE ORGANELLES
• Nucleus…>Mitochondria…..>Golgi complex

CYTOSKELETON
1. Cytoskeleton which connects ECM to ICM = Intermediate filament
2. Cytoskeleton connected to ECM = Proteoglycan
3. ECM connected to ICM through = Integrin

REGARDING THIRST
Thirst is increased by:
> Increase in Angi0tensin 2
> Decrease in blood v0lume
> Increase in osmolarity
> Dryness of mouth.
> Increase in ADH

Thirst is decreased by:
> Gastric distension.
> Decrease in ADH,
> Angiotensin2,
> Increase in BP.
> Increase in blood volume.
(** Reference Guyton)

Important Points Regarding Dialysis Fluid Question.

In the dialyzing fluid, glucose and bicarbonates would increase compared to the plasma fluid. Everything else would decrease. (** Reference: Guyton & Hall Physiology)

Creatinine Clearance
>> 90 ….NORMAL
60-89. …..mild
45-59. …moderate
30-44. …damage
15-29. ….severe
< < 15. ….ESTABLISHES Renal Failure!

Radiosensitivity
seminoma > glial glioma > craniopharyngioma

 

  • TG = chylomicron > VLDL
  • Cholesterol = LDL
  • Protiens = HDL
  • Granuloma===Characteristic cells===Epitheloid cells
  • Tuberculosis granulomas ===Caseating granulomas/necrosis characteristic.
    Also occur in histoplasmosis
    ●To differentiate ===AFB.
    ●Cervical lymph nodes biopsy done
    Now characteristic ===Caseating granuloma
    ●Cervical lymph nodes biopsy done and biopsy shows Caseating granulomas now further
    ===AFB detection === definitive Dx.
    ■Non – caseating granulomas===SARCOIDOSIS, Crohns disease etc.

 

STAGES OF MITOSIS

INTERPHASE
– Chromosomes are copied (doubles)
– Chromosomes appear as thread like coils (chromatin) at the start but each chromosome and its copy (sister chromosome) changes to sister chromatids at end of this phase
PROPHASE
– Mitosis begins (cell begins to divide)
– Centrioles (or poles) appear and begin to move to opposite ends of cell
– Spindle fibers form between the poles
METAPHASE
– Chromatids (or pair of chromosomes) attach to the spindle fiber
ANAPHASE
– Chromatids (or pair of chromosomes) separate and begin to move to opposite ends of the cell
TELOPHASE
– Two new nuclei form
– Chromosome appear as chromatin (threads rather than rods)
– Mitosis ends

Important FCPS Part 1 Pharmacology High-yield Facts
1)Most effective anti-TB drug= Rifampicin
2)Most bactericidal anti TB drug=Rifapicin
3)Most toxic anti-TB drug= Isoniazid
4)Anti-TB Drug causing rapid sputum conversion= Isoniazid
5)Orange urine and body secretions= Rifampicin
6)1st to develop resistance=Isoniazid
7)Drug contraindicated in all categories of dots=INH+Rifampicin
8)injectable anti-TB drug=Rifampicin
9)OPTIC neuritis by= Ethambutol
10)Vestibular damge= Streptomycin
11) Drug with the only bacteriostatic=Ethambutol

Miscellaneous High-Yield Important FCPS Part 1 Points

1. Inferior thyroid artery ligation: Damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerves
2. Superior thyroid artery ligation: Damage to the external laryngeal
3. Thyroidectomy…Damage to the external laryngeal
4. Thyroidectomy with vocal cord damage….Damage to the recurrent laryngeal
5. Tracheostomy…recurrent laryngeal

☆PUS = penile urethra superficial pouch/scrotum
☆BUS = bulbar urethra = sup pouch
☆MUD = membranous urethra deep pouch

1 REST
Max blood flow at rest=
1.liver(1500ml)
2.kidneys(1260 ml)
Max blood flow/ 100gm at rest
1st.carotid bodies
2nd.kidney
DURING EXERCISE=
Max blood supply =Skeletal muscle
least blood supply(not according to demand)=kidneys
Least oxygen supply(not according to demand)=skeletal muscles

Cystinuria b6
Cystinemia b12

  • Implant removed, fluid leaking, type of cells: Giant cells
  • Implant removed, no leaking, type of cells: Giant cells
  • Implant not removed, leaking of fluid present, type of cells: Giant cells
  • Implant removed, leaking of fluid plus signs of inflammation, type of cells: Neutrophils
  • Implant not removed, no leaking but there are tenderness r other signs of inflammation, type of cells: Neutrophils

Only these two type of cells we’ll find, there is no roll of immunity so no plasma cells…

Points to remember
In breast implant type of cells: giant cells
But when inflammation mentioned then neutrophils, simple. 🙂
Basal cell carcinoma is Boss present on the upper lip
squamous cell carcinoma is a secretary so present on the lower lip 😀

ANATOMICAL LEVELS TO RELATED STRUCTURES (High-yield Important Anatomy Points for FCPS Part 1)

  • C1-C2 VERTEBRA: vocal cords
  • C2-oropharynx and soft palate with mouth open
  • C3-hyoid bone
  • the level of the larynx in infants-C2-C3
  • the level of the larynx in adults-C3-C6
  • C3-C4: bifurcation of common carotid artery
  • C4 &C5-thyroid cartilage
  • C6-cricoid cartilage
  • C6-beginning of trachea
  • C6-beginning of esophagus
  • C7-vertebra prominence
  • thyroid lobe superior extent-oblique line of thyroid cartilage
  • isthmus of thyroid gland-2nd through 4th tracheal rings
  • thyroid lobe inferior extent-sixth tracheal ring
  • spine at the root of the scapula-opposite third thoracic spine
  • thoracic inlet-T1
  • the superior angle of scapula-overlies part of 2nd rib-1st intercoastal space superior to
  • angle/T2
  • jugular notch-T2&T3 vertebral junction
  • Carnia-T3-4 or T4
  • manubrium Sterni-T3&T4
  • sternal angle-T4&T5
  • the body of the sternum-T5 to T9 vertebra
  • greater splanchnic nerve-T5-T9 sympathetic ganglia
  • the apex of heart/mitral value-5th intercoastal space
  • the base of heart/supine position-T5 to T8 vertebra
  • the base of heart/erect position-T6 to T9
  • oblique fissure of lung-T6
  • inferior angle of scapula-T7
  • vena-caval foramen-T8
  • xiphoid process-T9
  • xiphisternal joint-T9 vertebra typically
  • esophageal hiatus-T10
  • termination of oesophagus-T11
  • lesser splanchnic nerve-T10-T11 sympathetic ganglia
  • least splanchnic nerve- T12 sympathetic ganglion
  • aortic hiatus-T12
  • coeliac trunk branch of abdominal aorta-T12
  • median arcuate logament of respiratory diaphragm- T12 &L1 junction
  • pulmonary valve-left 2nd intercoastal space medial
  • aortic valve-right 2nd intercoastal space
  • tricuspid valve-right lower sternum
  • nipple in male-4th intercoastal space in midclavicular line
  • transpyloric plane-L1
  • celiac trunk-L1 superior border
  • superior mesentric artery-L1 inferior border
  • pylorus of stomach-L1
  • 1st part of duodenum-L1
  • left renal vein-L2
  • 2nd part of duodenum-L1, L2, L3 right side
  • 3rd part of duodenum-L3
  • left crus of diaphragm-L2
  • right crus of the diaphragm-L3 vertebra
  • inferior mesenteric artery-L3
  • sub coastal plane-L3
  • spinal cord termination: L1 in adults & L3 in New borns
  • spleen-obliquely along axis of 10th rib
  • right kidney-
    Superior pole-T12
    Inferior pole-L3
    Hilum-L1
  • left kidney-
    Superior pole-T12
    inferior pole-L3
    Hilum-L1
  • pancrease head-L2&L3
  • umbilicus(in supine/recumbent position)-disc between L3-L4
  • bifurcation of abdominal aorta-L4
  • supracristal plane/higheat point on illiac crest-L4
  • transtubercular plane-L5
  • origin of inferior vena cava-L5by by
  • anterior superior illiac spine-S1/sacral promontary
  • posterior auperior illiac spine-S2
  • pubic symphysis-tip of the coccyx
  • Hpertension..JG cells affected
  • Dopamine BBB not crossed
  • Floor of 4th ventrical suprolateral scp
  • the otooncogen overexpression most common cause of neoplasm
  • Dorsal rami supply extensors of trunk
  • Cortisol extrahepatic catabolism
  • Hepatic anabolism of proteins
  • Lens never regenerate
  • Heart contractility depends upon calcium ions
  • BPS aerated by tertiary bronchus
  • Gram staining quick way to check gonococcus
  • Olfactory cells bipolar neurons
  • Adh via v1 causes sm constriction in arterioles Gq
  • Infraorbital artery branch of maxillary artery
  • Xx+pseudohermaphrodism androgenetic syndrome
  • Rt main bronchus length 2.5
  • Patlets infusion contraindicated in splenomegaly
  • In venous blood, RBCs have more hco3
  • Shortening of chromosome > transcriptase
  • Normal resp cycle
  • 2sec ins 3 sec exp
  • Pressure is dissipated at arteriolar arterioles
  • 6th post-MI day pericardial tamponade common
  • Highest Mg stores in bones
  • Angiopathy neuropathy cause of ulcers in diabetics
  • Edema of kidney origin albuminuria and Na-retention
  • Tubercle of bacilli cells comes from monocytes
  • Christmas factor b> factor ix
  • Primordial germ cells derived from endoderm
  • Kidney derived from intermediate mesoderm
  • ureteric bud derived from the caudal end of mesonephric duct
  • fisherman with ecchymosis on lips caused by vit c def
  • Trisomy 21 Robertsonian translocation
  • premalignant lesion of the vulva is condyloma
  • chlamydia most common cause of PID
  • UV prolapsed complication > chronic discharge and metaplasia
  • sorbitol is an alcohol sugar
  • HLA compatibility for BMT
  • in deep inspiration, dead space does not change
  • graft versus host disease is an example of apoptosis
  • serotonin and epinephrine are mainly metabolized by MAO
  • proteinuria leads to Russel bodies formation
  • dead space is not changed in deep inspiration
  • metaplasia is a functional change in size
  • virulence of bacteria depends on the type of toxin
  • inc in stroma and dec in glands is atrophy
  • the patent lumen of allantois>urachal fistula
  • nociceptive afferents terminate in post gray column
  • dorsal column enter in the dorsal gray horn
  • only protein diet > inc glucagon
  • GABA mediates the anxiolytic effect
  • parasympathetic 75% by vagus
  • sphingomyelin does nit contain glycerol
  • volume of distribution:dose upon concentration
  • sjogren > sialogram test assessry
  • thioridazone has strongest antimiscarinic effect
  • inc resp in pregnancy> progesterone
  • bradykinin > polypeptide > vasodilation
  • cervical spine lateral horn is missing
  • peroxisomes long chain fattay acids oxidation
  • whole wheat source of thiamine
  • litre urine contains NACL =2-6 gm/litre
  • miscele carry products of TAG digestion to small intestine epithelium
  • surfactant forms macromolecular layer between water molecules
  • endogenous muscle relaxant is endorphin
  • restlessness is effect of atropine on cns
  • swallowing of bronchial secretions is parasympathetic action
  • slow pain substance p
  • fast pain glutamate
  • stimulatory neurotransmitter in cerebellum is glutamate
  • granular layer is the only stimulatory layer of cerebellum
  • clostridium does not produce endotoxin
  • HLA gene on chromosome 6
  • calcitonin congo stained
  • aortic notch is due to aortic valve
  • tubuloglomerular feedback supported by dec peritubular NA conc
  • submandibular surgery
  • Injures marginal branch of mandibular branch of facial nerve
  • renal artery >segmental >interlobar>arcuate
  • upper origin of external oblique forms digitation with serratous anterior
  • sarcoidosis>granuloma with asteroid bodies
  • mumps rna
  • IM dna
  • Endopeptidases are more imp than exopeptidases for protein digestion
  • deep sea divers > emboli in arteries
  • albino>dec melanin in choroid layer of retina
  • iga neohropathy mesangial deposits in gbm
  • igm and c3 deposits in FSGS
  • tracheostomy level 2-3rd tracheal ring
  • germinal follicles cortex of LN
  • IAPP endocrine type
  • systemic AL
  • secondary AA
  • heridity TTR
  • ant triangle c2,c3
  • Folia seen in cerebellum
  • acetylcholine not released at postganglionic nerves to vasoconstricting muscles
  • histones have arginine and lysine
  • nucleus is continuous with rough endoplasmic reticulumn
  • distributiok curve :mean and standard deviation
  • antidepressants:seizures
  • fetal cortisol major role in parturation
  • CPN related to biceps femoris laterall
  • standard deviation in normal distribution mean median mide coincide
  • neural tube forms cns
  • listeria only gram positive organism producing LpS
  • Thermogenesis
  • Earliest response inc catecholamine
  • Potent. Shivering
  • Anterior hyoothalmus main controling center
  • Thermogenesis via sympathetic b1 to fats
  • And motorneurons
  • Dissipation mainly via parasympathetic
  • IL-1 increses prostaglandin in brain to inc set point
  • Cogwheel or lead pipe in parkinson
  • Clasp knife in upper motor neyron leision
  • exogenous steroids> dec IL-2 release
  • Sturge weber >choroid hemangioma
  • Normal playlets
  • n granuloma in anaerobes
  • muscles supply
  • 40% sens 60% motor
  • basophilia to cells is bt RER
  • diencephalon does not include superior colliculus
  • b-endorphins mist abundantly in the hypothalamus
  • most common genetic pathology is by nucleotides
  • lichen simplex chronicus is a/w sq neoplasia
  • polyclonal hyperplasia > IM
  • the insula is deep to the lateral sulcus
  • diazepam relaxes sk muscle by inhibitory interneurons
  • diphenoxylate DOC for travellers diarrhea
  • synapses absent in dorsal root ganglion
  • cerebral aqueduct forms cavity of midbrain
  • griseofulvin not used in candid
  • isotonic exercise TPR remains same
  • chromophobes smallest cells in ant pituitary
  • subclavian artery arches over 1st rib
  • transduction genome from bacteria to virus
  • ip of nose ophthalmic division
  • release of histamine is by morphine
  • microaneurysm of HIv don’t include hard exudates
  • adenoid cystic CA invades the periphral nerves sheath
  • forced respiration sternocleidomastoid and scalnes
  • spleenomegaly in hodgkins is stage 3
  • nuclear bag fibers carry dynamic response
  • pseudihypoparathyroidism is associated with hupocal dmi
  • birbeck granules are associated with histocytosis
  • conc urine is function of vasa recta
  • collagen amorphous abundant substance
  • adamstroke. High degree heart block stroke with FND
  • cruciate intracapsular
  • Lesion at l1 conus medularis
  • denticulate ligament extension of pia meter

FCPS PART 1 PEARLS

☆¤Haemorrhages
¤Extradural haemorrhge=middle minengeal artery
¤subdural haemorrhage =diploic vein
¤subarchnoid haemorrahge=rupture on berry aneursm
☆tennis ball injury to eye=circulis iridis major
☆epistaxis=sphenopalatine artery
☆during tonsilectomy= para tonsillar vein,tonsillar and ascending palatine artery
☆tracheostomy=isthmus and inferior thyroid vein
☆heamoptysis=bronchial artey
☆gastric ulcer=left gastrc and splenic artery
☆dudenal ulcer=gastrodudenal artery
☆hemmorhoids=submucosal rectal venous plexuses formed by superior rectal vein and inferior rectal vein
☆retropubic proastatectomy=drsal venous plexuses
¤¤
☆Turner = 45XO
☆KF= 47XXY
☆True hermaphrodite =XXy
☆peudohermaphrodite =46Xy or 45X
¤¤Mole
☆complete hydatidfm mole -46XX
☆partial mole -69XXy
¤¤¤Chromosomes n Dna both replicate in interphase
¤Studied in Metaphase
¤¤¤¤Trisomy
21 > Down syndrome
13 > Ptau
18 > edvert
16 > spontaneous abortion
¤¤¤ Lumber Pucture
☆Most common loccation ==L4L5
☆LP Best Site ====above L4
☆IF pt e miningitis LP site ===below L3
¤¤¤Epidural anesthesia ==L3-4
☆widest epidural space > L2
☆Cauda Equina (CHILDren) === L3
☆Conus medullaris (Adult) = L1
☆Subarchnoid space == S2
☆Chorea > caudate
☆Athetosis > putamen
☆Pco2 rises upto 12mmhg in first minute of apnea
☆ Increased alpha feto protein plus increased albumin = Anencephaly.
☆Vitamin A prevents squamous cell carcinoma.
☆Right border of heart is made by right atrium.
☆Right border of heart on XRAY made by SVc +Rt Atrium
☆ Trephine biopsy Indicates = aplastic anemia > ALL.
☆In anesthesia halothane is always given with Nitric oxide.
☆Most diagnostic test for TB = PCR > AFB > Caseous.
☆Down syndrome occurs 1/100.
☆Common genital vesicle is herpes simplex virus.
☆Inferior orbital fissure contents are maxillary nerve and its zygomatic branch, inferior ophthalmic vein and sympathetic nerves and this fissure communicates with pterygo palatine fossa.
☆Superior orbital fissure communicates with middle cranial fossa and it transmits lacrimal nerve, frontal nerve, trochlear nerve, oculomotor nerve, abducent nerve, nasociliary nerve and superior ophthalmic vein.
☆Thyroid is the only endocrine gland that stores its secretions outside the cell.
☆Sensations from the tip of nose are carried by ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve.
☆Tensor tympani is supplied by mandibular division of trigeminal nerve.
☆Stapedius is supplied by facial nerve.
¤¤Nucleus raphe synthesize serotonin.
¤¤ Locus Ceruleus = Nor epinephrine.
☆At term CRL = 36 cm and CHL = 50 cm.
¤¤CRL used b/w 7 – 14 weeks.
☆☆BPD is used 16 – 30 weeks.
☆Sperm life in genital tract is 24 to 72hours.
¤¤¤Active ===24- 48hrs
¤2nd most common cause of osteoporosis in old age is Cushing syndrome.
¤Prenatal chromosome is detected at 14 -18 weeks.
¤Bronchial asthma plus hypertensive patient > Best drug Verapamil.
¤Aphasia and facial nerve palsy > damage to middle meningeal artery.
☆Diabetic plus hypertensive patient > Best drug Captopril.
☆Inferior wall MI > Right marginal artery block.
☆ Epidermis of partoid gland is derived from ectoderm.
☆To kill spores of surgical instrument > moist heat at 160 C for 1 hr.
☆Food poisoning caused by Staph. Aureus is through entertoxin.
☆Least positive value for Widal is 1:120.
☆Trigeminal ganglion is completely covered by dura.
☆ Tactile sensation is carried by dorsal white column to medial leminiscus.
☆ Anti HBcAg = positive window period.
☆MAP = diastolic +1/3 pulse pressure.
☆ Insulin secretion is inhibited by beta blocker.
☆Increased By Glucagon
☆Highest triglyceride =Chylomicrons >VLDL > Chylomicrons remanents
☆Highest cholesterol = LDL.
☆ Highest lipoprotein = HDL.
☆ Which is not a phospholipid = Plasmalogen.
☆ Best way to check bone density is the scan of spine.
☆End break down of glucose is pyruvate.
☆☆In pre eclamptic patient hydralazine is the drug of choice before surgery.
☆In down syndrome: Triple test (alpha feto protein is decreased, b-HCG is increased and estriol is decreased) and if we add up inhibin which is increased then it will be called as .
☆Bar body diagnostic for Tuners syndrome
☆scant bodies in KF
☆PLAP (Placental Alkaline Phosphatase) is a tumor marker in seminoma and ovarian carcinoma.
☆Tubo ovarian abscess by IUCD – most causative agent is Actinomycosis.
☆Major intracellular buffer is Hb.
☆ DVT more common in popliteal vein but pulmonary embolism is through femoral veins.
☆Investigation of DIC D-dimers, FDPs, Platelet count and PT (except clotting time).
☆Referred pain:
¤¤Cervix S2-S3
¤ Ovary -T10-T11
¤Testis -T10
¤ Umbilicus -T10
¤Kidney T12-L2.
☆Trimethoprim (co-trimoxazole ) side effect > megaloblastic anemia plus leukopenia.
☆ Sacrospinous ligament does NOT contribute in wall of perineum.
☆ Lesser omentum connects with duodenum.
“☆Sphincteric urethra is known as external urethral sphincter and is supplied by pudendal nerves where as internal os is supplied by inferior hypo gastric plexus.
☆Nerve supply of rectum is hypogastric plexus.
☆Uterine tube is 10 cm long.
“☆Urachal cyst is the remanant of allantois.
☆Thyroid gland is derived from endoderm.
☆Thymus and inferior parathyroid develops from 3rd branchial pouch.
☆Superior para thyroid is developed from 4th brachial pouch.
☆ Diaphragmatic hernia occurs due to absence of pleuro peritoneal membrane.
☆Superior thyroid artery is related to external laryngeal nerve which supplies posterior cricothyroid muscle of larynx. Injured during Thyroidectomy
☆Inferior thyroid artery is also related to recurrent laryngeal nerve which runs b/w trachea and esophagus and its most common injury is in Traceostomy.
☆ In papillary carcinoma of thyroid > it occurs in young age and involves cervical lymph nodes.
☆ Tracheostomy is done at 2nd tracheal ring by pulling the isthmus inferiorly.
☆ Nonfunctional nodule or cold nodule has high chances of malignant transformation.
☆Erythropoiesis in middle trimester is in the liver.
☆ Levator ani muscle is supplied by L2, L3 & L4.
☆Defect in Bulbus Cordis results in VSD, hypertrophy of Right ventricle, congenital cyanosis, transposition of great vessels (but not ASD)
☆Endocardial cushion is important for the formation of four chambers of heart.
☆Thirst is least stimulated by blood pressure.
☆Important hormone involved in gluconeogenesis is Cortisol.
☆Apoptosis is inhibited by bcl-2 inhibition.
☆Apoptosis ~ Actuvation of caspases
☆Low serum complement in SLE.
☆C3b & IgG are Opsonins
☆C5a is chemotactic protein.
☆ Urea is an important indicator for muscle protein loss.
☆ESR is decreased when albumin is increased.
☆ESR increased during Infection
” Drug which does not cause gynecomastia is Androgen & drugs which cause gynecomastia are Digoxin, Girsoefulvin, Cimetidine, Androgens, Spironolactone and Ketoconazole.
☆Tx of hirstuism is Cyproterone Acetate.
☆Pyruvic acid is intermediate from glucose to acetyl coA.
☆Epinephrine .nor epinephrine & dopamine are derived from tyrosine.
☆End product of Purine is Uric acid.
☆RBCs have glycolytic enzyme activity.
☆End product of glucose gives 2 Pyruvate.
Alanine should be taken in diet.
☆Cisplatin is more notorious to cause renal toxicity.
☆Dysplasia is seen in epithelia.
☆MRNA has a codon.
☆HSV is associated with vulvar papules.
☆Wart on the lateral wall of introitus it is caused by HPV.
☆Plaque like lesion on posterior superior wall of vagina is squamous cell carcinoma.
☆ German Measles causes Congenital Cataract.
Anterior abdominal wall swelling with umbilical cord attached to it in a new born baby is known as Omphalocele.
☆Beta-lactam acts on the Cell Wall.
¤¤¤ ATT Drugs
☆Streptomycin=== ototoxity.
☆Isoniazid ==Hepatotoxicity.
☆Pyrazinamide == Gout
☆Rifampacin=Orange red color urine
☆ Opportunistic organism ~E. Coli Kleibeslla
☆Pseudomembranous colitis is caused by C. difficile.
☆Most common organism involved in gynecological & abdominal procedures is Bacteriods .
☆Vulvular itching = Chlamydia
☆ fish like smell; Bacterial Vaginosis.
☆ Vitamin K dependent: Factors 2, 7,9,10, Protein C, Protein S, Fibrinogen and Prothrombin.
☆Intrinsic and Extrinsic pathways of coagulation converge at factor 10.
☆Threonine does not contain Sulfa group.
☆Autosomal dominant is hereditary Spherocytosis & Poly cystic kidney disease.
☆Lens opacity causing drugs >Chlorpromazine, Amidarone, Tamoxifen, Gold & Iron toxicity.
☆Drugs causing corneal opacity > Amiodarone, Chloroquine, Mepacrine & Copper.
☆ Ribosome have purple color on Eosin & Methylene blue staining
☆High energy content > Starch.
☆High energy compound > ATP
☆Antidote of warfarin is vitamin K but if action is more quickly required then

FFP.
☆Olfactory cells are the only neurons in the body that regenerates.
☆Projectile vomiting greenish in color means bilious vomiting so it is due to duodenal atresia but if projectile vomiting non bilious then it is hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.
☆ Pulmonary trunk relation with the bronchus at the hilum of the lung-mnemonic is RALSR- Right Anterior & Left Superior.
☆Rhino sinusitis is caused by Strep Pneumonia, H. Influenza, M Catarrahalis.
☆ Homan’s sign is present in DVT in which if you dorsiflex the foot there will be pain in calf muscles.
☆ Classic triad of Pulmonary Embolism: –
☆☆Neurological manifestations.
-Petechial rash.
-Hypoxemia.
☆Nitrogen bubbled precipitator in ascending divers and can be treated with hyperbaric oxygen.
☆CT pulmonary angiography is the best test to detect Pulmonary Embolism.
☆The most common infectious agent transmitted by blood transfusion is cytomegalovirus (CMV), which is present in donor lymphocytes.
☆Before blood is transfused into newborns or patients with T-cell deficiencies, it must be irradiated to kill donor lymphocytes. This prevents the patient from developing a graft-versus-host reaction or a CMV infection.
☆Yersinia enterocolitica, a pathogen that thrives on iron, is the most common contaminant of stored blood.
☆ Iron is stored in bone macrophages.
☆ Structures passing thru superior orbital fissure….
NOT-FAL
¤NASOCILLIARY¤OPTHALIMIC VEIN¤TROCHLEAR¤FRONTAL
☆☆Suture Removal:
¤Head 5-7days
¤Face 3-5days
¤Eyelid & eyebrow 3-5days
¤Trunk 5-7days
¤Extremities 7-10days
¤Surface of joint 10-14days
¤Hand ==7days
☆☆Absorption
☆iron nd divalents absorb in duodenum.
☆Folic acid, maximum water, max electrolytes, long chain fatty acids in jejunum.
☆Bile nd B12 absorb in ileum.
☆water nd electrolytes absorb in colon but less than jejunum. Short chain fatty acids absorb in colon.
¤¤Buffers
☆Major intracellular buffer is protein.
☆Major extracellular buffer is bicarb.
☆If only major buffer asked then Bicarb.
☆Major renal buffer is still bicarbonate if depleted theb
¤Phosphate ==Qualitative
¤Ammonia == Quantitative
☆Buffer in blood is H2co3 > Hb
¤¤Uterus
☆Uterosacral felt on PR
☆Main support is cardinal(also named transverse cervical ligament )
☆Round ligament of uterus keeps it anteverted anteflexed
☆broad ligament has very lessor role in support
☆Best way to “measure” gfr is inulin clearance.
☆best way to “estimate” gfr is creatinine clearance.
☆best way to “clincally” measure gfr is creatinine clearance.
☆best way to measure renal plasma / blood flow is PAH .
☆best test for renal falilure is creatinine clearance.
☆☆☆☆ blood transfusion
multiple===hemochromatosis
massive===hyperkalemia
repeated ===hypocalcemia

FCPS PART 1 Important Microbiology Facts

  • Ascetic tap – E.coli
  • Peritonitis – E.coli.
  • Pyogenic peritonitis – Bacteroids.
  • Puerperal sepsis – Bacteroids.
  • P.O abdominal and gynaecological infection – Bacteroids.
  • Abscess – S.Aureus.
  • Acute osteomyelitis – S.Aureus.
  • Toxic shock syndrome – S.Aureus.
  • Wound infection – S.Aureus > Pseudomona.
  • Hospital acquired pneumonia – S.Aureus.
  • Septic meningitis – Streptococcus.
  • Initiation of dental caries – Streptococcus.
  • Pyogenic lung abscess + Meningitis – Staphylococcus.
  • Subacute bacterial endocarditis – S.viridians.
  • Prosthetic valve endocarditis – S.epidermidis.
  • Cellulitis – S.pyogenes.
  • Multiple draining sinuses – Actinomyces.
  • IUCD infection – Actinomycosis.
  • Trachoma – Chlamydia.
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease – Chlamydia.
  • Lymphogranuloma venereum – Chlamydia.
  • Pseudomembranous colitis – C.Difficile.
  • Gas gangrene – C.Perfringes / C.Welchii.
  • Fatal diarrhea – V.Cholrea.
  • Tubulo ovarian cyst – Gonococcus.
  • Abscess – S.Aureus.
  • Acute osteomyelitis – S.Aureus.
  • Toxic shock syndrome – S.Aureus.
  • Wound infection – S.A
  • Valvular itching + Pink purulent discharge – Trichomanas vaginilis.
  • Infection in post liver transplant patient – CMV.
  • Chorioretinitis in AIDS – CMV.
  • Bronchogenic carcinoma – CMV.
  • Herpangia – Coxsakie virus.
  • Hand foot and mouth disease – Coxsakie virus
  • Lymphoma in AIDS – EBV.
  • Burkitt lymphoma – EBV.
  • Non hodgkin lymphoma – EBV.
  • Hairy tongue – EBV.
  • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma – EBV.
  • Infectious mononucleosis – EBV.
  • Kaposi sarcoma – HHV8.
  • Cervical cancer – HPV 16.
  • Vulval papules – HSV.
  • Meningo-encephalitis – Echovirus.
  • Meningitis in AIDS – Cryptococcus neoformans.
  • Black water fever – Plasmodium falciparum.
  • Cysticercosis – Taenia solium.
  • Cyst in liver – Teania echinococcus.
  • SCC of bladder – Schistosomiasis.
  • Cholangio carcinoma – Clonorchis Sinensis.
  • Migratory lesion of foot – Cutaneous larva migrans.
  • Toxoplasmosis – Cat

We hope you find these high-yield important FCPS Part 1 Facts/Pearls useful! 🙂

 

GOOD LUCK! 🙂

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