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Applied Anatomy & Physiology for Manual Therapists PDF

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Applied Anatomy and Physiology for Manual Therapists is a clear, accurate, simple, and comprehensive A&P textbook that addresses the needs of students in manual therapy education programs. It is a focused text that deliberately emphasizes the information manual therapists need to be familiar with in order to understand the benefits, effects, indications, and contraindications of their specific form of manual therapy. The text includes detailed information not covered in standard A&P texts, adding an entire chapter on neuromuscular and myofascial connections (Chapter 8), and separating the structure and function of the lymphatic system (Chapter 11) from immunity and healing (Chapter 12). This, along with chapter features such as Manual Therapy Applications, Pathology Alerts, and What Do You Think questions, help readers build bridges between the scientific facts and the application of that information to their therapeutic practice.

Features of Applied Anatomy & Physiology for Manual Therapists PDF

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Table of Contents

Below is the complete table of contents offered inside Applied Anatomy & Physiology for Manual Therapists PDF:

Reviewers xii

Acknowledgments xiii

Preface xiv

User’s Guide xv

Unit I Introduction to Anatomy, Physiology, and the Manual Therapies 1

1 Applying Anatomy and Physiology to the Practice of Manual Therapy 2

Levels of Organization 5


Negative Feedback 7

Positive Feedback 7

Benefits and Physiologic Effects of Manual Therapy 9

Benefits 9

Physiologic Effects 9

Systems of the Body 11

2 The Body and Its Terminology 18

Orientation to the Body 21

Anatomic Position 21

Body Planes 21

Describing Location 22

Describing Movement 24

Common Anatomic Terminology 25

Prefixes, Suffixes, and Word Roots 26

Body Regions 28

Body Cavities 28

Ventral Cavities 29

Dorsal Cavities 30

Pathology Basics: Classifications and Terminology 30

Classifications of Disease 30

General Terminology 31

Unit II Cells, Tissues, and Membranes 35

3 Chemistry, Cells, and Tissues 36

Chemical Components of Cells 39

Inorganic Compounds 40

Water 40

Inorganic Salts 41

Acids and Bases 41

Organic Compounds 42

Carbohydrates 42

Lipids 42

Proteins 42

Nucleic Acids 42

Structure of the Cell 42

Plasma Membrane 42

Cytoplasm 44

Nucleus 44

Cellular Processes 45

Transport Mechanisms 46

Passive Transport 46

Active Transport 46

Cellular Metabolism 48

Anabolism 48

Catabolism 48

Cell Division and Differentiation 48

Types of Tissue in the Body 50

Epithelial Tissue 50

Muscle Tissue 52

Nervous Tissue 53

Connective Tissue 53

Cells 53

Fibers 53

Ground Substance 54

Tissue Repair and Regeneration 55

4 Body Membranes and the Integumentary System 58

Membranes 61

Connective Tissue Membranes 61

Epithelial Tissue Membranes 62

Mucous Membranes 62

Serous Membranes 62

Cutaneous Membrane 63

The Integumentary System 63

Layers of the Skin 64

Epidermis 65

Dermis 67

Subcutaneous Layer 67

Accessory Organs of the Integumentary System 68

Hair and Nails 68

Glands 69

Sebaceous Glands 69

Sudoriferous Glands 69

Sensory Receptors 69

Linking the Integumentary and Nervous Systems 71

Skin Conditions and Diseases 73

Common Contagious Skin Disorders 73

Common Noncontagious Skin Disorders 74

Aging and the Integumentary System 75

Unit III Framework and Movement 79

5 The Skeletal System 80

Functions of the Skeletal System 83

The Skeleton 83

Axial Skeleton 84

Appendicular Skeleton 86

Bone Tissue and Structure 86

Bone Tissue 86

Compact Bone 87

Spongy Bone 88

Bone Classifications by Shape 88

Anatomy of a Bone 89

Bones and Their Landmarks 91

General Landmark Terminology 91

Head and Face 92

Spinal Column 96

Thorax 99

Pectoral Girdle 100

Upper Limb and Forearm 101

Wrist and Hand 102

Pelvic Girdle 102

Thigh and Leg 103

Ankle and Foot 105

Joints 107

Fibrous Joints 108

Cartilaginous Joints 108

Synovial Joints 108

Types of Synovial Joints 109

Special Movements 112

Aging and the Skeletal System 115

6 The Skeletal Muscle System 118

Characteristics and Functions of Skeletal Muscle 121

Structure of Skeletal Muscle 121

Skeletal Muscle Fibers 122

Connective Tissue Components 123

Fascia 124

Tendon and Aponeurosis 124

Physiology of Muscle Contraction 125

Sliding Filament Mechanism 125

The Motor Unit: Stimulating Muscle Contraction 126

Energy for Contraction 127

Creatine Phosphate 127

Anaerobic Cellular Metabolism 128

Aerobic Cellular Metabolism 128

Muscle Fatigue and Oxygen Debt 129

Types of Muscle Contraction 129

Tonic Contractions 130

Isometric Contractions 130

Isotonic Contractions 131

Twitch and Tetanic Contraction 131

Movement and Muscle Assignments 132

Lever Systems 132

Muscle Architecture 133

Parallel Muscles 134

Pennate Muscles 134

Muscle Assignments during Movement 134

Range of Motion 137

Major Muscles of the Body 138

Muscle Names 138

Muscles of the Head and Face 139

Muscles of the Neck 139

Muscles of the Chest and Abdomen 144

Muscles of the Spine 146

Muscles of the Back 147

Muscles of the Upper Arm 148

Muscles of the Forearm 151

Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle 153

Muscles of the Thigh 154

Muscles of the Leg 155

Exercise, Aging, and the Muscular System 158

Unit IV Communication and Control 165

7 The Nervous System 166

Functional Organization of the Nervous System 169

Nervous Tissue 170

Neurons 170

Neuroglia 172

Nerves 172

Cranial Nerves 174

Spinal Nerves 174

Impulse Conduction 179

Action Potentials 179

Synaptic Transmission 181

Neuronal Pathways 182

Reflex Arcs 182

Neuronal Pools and Circuits 183

The Peripheral Nervous System: Sensory Structures and Functions 184

Photoreceptors 185

Chemoreceptors 186

Nociceptors 187

Thermoreceptors 187

Mechanoreceptors 187

Tactile Receptors 187

Baroreceptors 188

Mechanoreceptors in the Ear 188

Proprioceptors 189

The Central Nervous System: Integrative Structures and Functions 189

Meninges and Cerebrospinal Fluid 190

Spinal Cord 191

White and Gray Matter 191

Dorsal and Ventral Nerve Roots 191

Brain 194

Brain stem 194

Diencephalon 195

Cerebrum 195

Cerebellum 197

Limbic System 198

The Peripheral Nervous System: Motor Structures and Functions 199

Somatic Division 199

Autonomic Division 199

Sympathetic Pathways 203

Parasympathetic Pathways 203

The Nervous System at Work 205

Learning and Memory 205

Interoception 206

Pain 206

Theories of Pain 206

Types of Pain 207

Pain Management 209

Aging and the Nervous System 210

8 Neuromuscular and Myofascial Connections 214

Neuromuscular Reflexes 217

Reciprocal Inhibition 217

Stretch Reflex and Gamma Gain 218

Inverse Stretch Reflex 221

The Fascial System 223

Layers 224

Fascial Patterns 225

Myofascial Trains 225

Horizontal Bands and Planes 226

Mechanical Properties of Fascia 226

Viscoelasticity 228

Thixotropy 229

Piezoelectricity 229

Fascial Plasticity 231

Fascia as a Sensory Organ 231

Intrafascial Smooth Muscle Cells 233

Posture, Balance, and Coordinated Movement 234

Proprioception 235

Postural and Phasic Muscles 235

9 The Endocrine System 242

Hormones 245

Mechanisms of Hormone Action 247

Control of Hormone Secretion 248

Endocrine Glands and Tissues 249

Hypothalamus, Pituitary Gland, and Pineal Gland 250

Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands 251

Thymus 253

Pancreas 254

Adrenal Glands 254

Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex 254

Hormones of the Adrenal Medulla 257

Ovaries and Testes 257

Prostaglandins and Other Local Hormones 257

The Stress Response 258

The Alarm Response 258

The Resistance Reaction 260

Exhaustion 261

Aging and the Endocrine System 261

Unit V Circulation and Body Defense 265

10 The Cardiovascular System 266

Blood 269

Plasma 269

Formed Elements 270

Red Blood Cells 270

White Blood Cells 271

Platelets 271

Blood Vessels 272

Arteries and Arterioles 273

Capillaries 274

Veins and Venules 275

The Heart 276

Heart Chambers, the Great Vessels, and Valves 278

Blood Flow through the Heart 280

Conduction System 280

Cardiac Cycle 283

Regulation of Heart Rate 284

Circulation and Dynamics of Blood Flow 285

Arterial Flow 286

Capillary Flow and Exchange 287

Venous Flow 288

Regulation of Circulation 289

Inflammation and Tissue Healing 290

Acute Stage 290

Subacute Stage 292

Maturation Stage 292

Aging and the Cardiovascular System 293

11 The Lymphatic System 298

Lymph 302

Lymph Vessel Network 302

Lymph Capillaries and Pre-collectors 302

Collector Vessels 304

Lymphatic Trunks and Ducts 305

Lymph Nodes 307

Structure of the Lymph Nodes 307

Lymph Node Beds 307

Lymph Formation and Movement 309

Pre-lymphatic Channels and Fluid Uptake 309

General Lymph Flow 310

Lymphotomes and Watersheds 311

Types of Edema 312

Edema from Cardiovascular Dysfunction 313

Edema from Lymphatic Dysfunction 314

Edema from Soft Tissue Damage 315

12 Immunity and Healing 318

Organs and Tissues of the Immune System 321

Primary Lymphoid Organs and Tissues 321

Secondary Lymphoid Organs and Tissues 322

Lymph Nodes 322

Spleen 322

Mucosa-Associaied Lymphoid Tissue 323

Nonspecific Immune Defenses 324

Physical Barriers 324

Chemical Barriers 324

Internal Antimicrobial Proteins 325

Phagocytes and Natural Killer Cells 325

Inflammation and Fever 326

Specific Immune Responses 328

Antibody-Mediated Immune Responses 328

Cell-Mediated Immune Responses 328

Acquisition of Immunity 329

Naturally Acquired Immunity 330

Artificially Acquired Immunity 331

Aging and the Immune System 332

Psychoneuroimmunology 332

Peptide Communication Network 333

Thoughts on Holistic Healing 333

Unit VI Metabolic Processes, Elimination, and Reproduction 337

13 The Respiratory System 338

Structures of the Respiratory System 341

Nose and Nasal Cavity 341

Pharynx 342

Larynx 342

Trachea 344

Lungs and Bronchial Tree 345

Alveoli and the Respiratory Membrane 346

Ventilation and Respiration 347

Ventilation 347

Respiration 349

Control and Regulation of Breathing 349

Aging and the Respiratory System 352

14 The Digestive System 356

Functions of the Digestive System 359

Gastrointestinal Tract 360

Layers of the Digestive Tract 361

Mouth and Pharynx 362

Esophagus 363

Stomach 364

Small Intestine 364

Large Intestine 366

Accessory Digestive Organs 368

Liver and Gallbladder 368

Pancreas 370

Metabolism and Nutrients 370

Carbohydrates 371

Lipids 372

Proteins 372

Vitamins and Minerals 372

Water 372

Diet and Health 373

Aging and the Digestive System 374

15 The Urinary System 376

Components of the Urinary System 379

Kidneys and Ureters 379

Bladder and Urethra 381

Role of the urinary System in Fluid Management 382

Urine Formation and Composition 384

Filtration 384

Reabsorption 384

Secretion 384

Composition of Urine 386

Aging and the Urinary System 387

16 The Reproductive System 390

Common Structures and Physiology 393

Male Reproductive System 393

Scrotum and Testes 393

Accessory Organs 395

Duct System 395

Accessory Glands 396

Penis 396

Female Reproductive System 397

Ovaries 397

Female Genitalia 398

Fallopian Tubes, Uterus, and Vagina 398

Uterus 398

Vagina 399

Menstrual Cycle 399

Pregnancy and Childbirth 400

Fertilization and Implantation 400

Pregnancy 402

Childbirth 403

Aging and the Reproductive System 404


Appendix A Benefits and Physiologic Effects of Swedish Massage 407

Appendix B Innervation of Major Skeletal Muscles 411

Appendix C Answer Key 417

Glossary 429

Figure Credits 451

Index 455

About the Authors 475

Applied Anatomy & Physiology for Manual Therapists PDF Free Download

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